off...thanks to everyone who wrote to us in praise of our first issue
of the HS:Report. Although I appreciate the kudos from everyone,
I think there is still room for improvement, and you have my promise that
this Report will only get better with time.
of getting better with time, in this issue we've got some cutting edge
research showing that a post-exercise protein drink might not be delivering
the all the benefits you thought you were getting.
also got a revolutionary study looking at the recovery ability of muscle
tissue after SEVEN, yes I said SEVEN, intense eccentric workouts
in a row. This is some groundbreaking research that can't be ignored.
did a little reminiscing as well this issue. When I look back at my life
in bodybuilding, I can't help but feel it's a good time to be a bodybuilder.
Things have certainly changed over the last couple of decades and most
of the change is in the form of knowledgesomething we all should
a note to our friends, the HS:StreetTeamers...As the universe
proves over and over again, what goes around truly comes around. With
that let me send out a hardy Thank You to all the StreetTeamers
the rewards! Until next time,
Title: Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate
ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise.
Researchers: Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller
SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, & Wolfe RR.
Source: American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology
& Metabolism. 2001 Aug;281(2):E197-206.
Summary: This study was designed to determine
whether drinking an essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement (6gEAA+35g
carbs) before exercise results in a greater anabolic response than supplementation
after resistance exercise.
Methods: Six healthy human subjects participated
in two trials in random order, PRE (6g EAA+35g carbs consumed immediately
before exercise), and POST (6g EAA+35g carbs consumed immediately after
exercise). A primed, continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine,
femoral arteriovenous catheterization, and muscle biopsies from the
vastus lateralis were used to determine phenylalanine concentrations,
enrichments, and net uptake across the leg.
Results: Blood and muscle phenylalanine concentrations
were increased by approximately 130% after drink consumption in both
trials. Amino acid delivery to the leg was increased during exercise
and remained elevated for the 2 h after exercise in both trials. Delivery
of amino acids (amino acid concentration times blood flow) was significantly
greater in PRE than in POST during the exercise bout and in the 1st
h after exercise. Total net phenylalanine uptake across the leg was
greater during PRE (209 +/- 42 mg) than during POST (81 +/- 19). Phenylalanine
disappearance rate, an indicator of muscle protein synthesis from blood
amino acids, increased after EAC consumption in both trials.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the
response of net muscle protein synthesis to consumption of an EAC solution
immediately before resistance exercise is greater than that when the
solution is consumed after exercise, primarily because of an increase
in muscle protein synthesis as a result of increased delivery of amino
acids to the leg.
Discussion: First let's talk about what's
right with this study. Then we'll tackle what's wrong with it to keep
things in perspective.
Here's what they did right. These researchers measured
systemic levels of amino acids after the drink, the amount of amino
acids delivered to muscle tissue, as well as the uptake of amino acids
into the muscle for protein synthesis. This way they were able to follow
the effects of the protein drink from the time it entered the blood
stream to its eventual incorporation into muscle protein.
What they found was that systemic (amino acids in
the blood stream) levels of amino acids were the same whether you took
the drink before or after training. Amino acid delivery to the leg increased
during exercise, and remained elevated for at least 2 hours after training.
This is the result of increased blood flow to the working muscle. This
increase in blood flow peaks during exercise then returns to normal
over the next 2 hours.
Here is where it gets interesting. Delivery of amino
acids, meaning the quantity of amino acids delivered to the muscle,
was significantly greater when they gave the protein drink before training
and remained significantly higher for at least an hour after the workout,
compared to drinking it immediately after training. The increased
delivery of amino acids from drinking the protein drink before training
increased amino acid uptake into muscle by over 250%!
The superiority of taking protein before training
is obvious when comparing the percentage of amino acids taken up by
the leg from the protein drink. When the protein drink was taken before
training, ~42% of the amino acids in the drink were taken up into the
muscle. The proportion was much lower when the protein was drank after
training, only about 16% of the drink was taken up into the muscle.
That's over twice as much of the amino acids being taken up by muscle
when it is consumed before training. It was estimated that ~86%
of total uptake was incorporated into proteins whereas only ~48% of
total uptake during the post workout trail was incorporated into proteins.
That's a huge difference.
As for the bad, this study only used 6 grams
of amino acids! I can blow my nose and produce more than 6 grams
of protein. These researchers had previously (1) used higher amounts
of protein (40 grams) without carbs, so in this study they wanted to
see if they could elicit a similar anabolic response with less protein
and more carbs. Of course, anybody who's serious about putting on muscle
weight is going to need more than 6 grams of amino acids before their
workout. I would suggest at least 20 grams before and another 20 grams
after. Although they used only essential amino acids in this study,
using a whole protein source is equally effective as long as it contains
all the essential amino acids.
If you want the most muscle growth from your
protein supplements, you must take one right before training, and the
another right after. Although I alone have been recommending this
for some time, you will surely see others making these recommendations
in the near future. At least you'll know you knew about it way before
the rest of the world did.
1. Tipton, KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D, Jr,
and Wolfe RR. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from
orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 276:
Title: Effects of a 7-day eccentric training
period on muscle damage and inflammation.
Researchers: Chen TC, Hsieh SS.
Institution: Department of Ball-Related Sports
Science, Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City, Taiwan.
Source: Medicine and Science Sports & Exercise
Purpose: This study examined the effects
of a 7-day repeated maximal isokinetic eccentric training period on
the indicators of muscle damage and inflammatory response.
Methods: Twenty-two college-age males were
randomly assigned to eccentric training (ET) and control groups (CON).
The initial exercise was 30 repetitions of maximal voluntary isokinetic
eccentric contraction (ECC1) on non-dominant elbow flexors with Cybex
6000 at 60 degrees.s-1 angular velocity. The ET group performed the
same exercise for the following 6 consecutive days (referred to as ECC2
to ECC7) after ECC1. Upper arm circumference (CIR), range of motion
(ROM), and maximal isometric force (MIF) were measured before, immediately
after, and every 24 h for 7 consecutive days after ECC1. Plasma creatine
kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase
(GOT), leukocyte counts, and serum interleukin-1beta and -6 (IL-1beta,
IL-6) levels were assessed before; at 2 h; and at 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7
d after ECC1. Muscle soreness was measured before and for 7 consecutive
days after ECC1.
Results: The ECC1 produced significant changes
in most of the measures for both groups, with the exception of leukocyte
counts. No indicators of increased damage were found from the second
consecutive day of eccentric training to the 7th day for the eccentric
Conclusion: Continuous intensive isokinetic
eccentric training performed with damaged muscles did not exacerbate
muscle damage and inflammation after ECC1. In addition, a muscular "adaptation
effect" may occur as early as 24 h after ECC1, as shown by the ET group's
performance for 6 consecutive days after ECC1.
Discussion: One of the most controversial
aspects of HST is the suggestion that people train in a predominantly
eccentric fashion for two weeks straight. Heresy! they shout. Then when
you ask them why it's so bad to train a muscle more frequently or, heaven
forbid, do negatives two workouts in a row, they say because your muscle
can't "recover" that fast. This study calls into question the belief
that muscles can't recover if trained again soon or even the next day.
They looked at a wide variety of markers for muscle
damage including plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase
(LDH), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), leukocyte counts, and
serum interleukin-1beta and -6 (IL-1beta, IL-6). Although both groups
experienced a significant change in all these indicators (accept leukocyte
count), no indicators of increased damage were found from ECC2 to ECC7
for the ET group.
What about soreness? For both the group who only
did one training session as well as those who did seven in a row, muscle
soreness developed 1 day after the first eccentric training bout, and
remained through the 3rd day, then gradually diminished regardless of
which group they were in. The group that did the eccentric sets every
day experienced the same progression and subsidence of soreness as the
group that did only one set at the beginning of the week. The soreness
level was almost back to baseline on 7 day for both groups.
The results of this investigation indicated that
repeated bouts of the eccentric exercise performed on each of the following
6 days after the first bout did not affect recovery from the first training
bout. This is in agreement with a substantial amount of other studies
indicating that muscle adapts effectively to physical load even when
the loading is frequent or even continuous. Keep in mind that we are
only talking about the physical recovery of the muscle. We are not talking
about performance. After all, HST is "Hypertrophy-Specific" by design.
So once again, HST turns out not to be so outlandish,
but instead, simply a derivative of the research. The results and the
science, speak for themselves.
In this day and age there is really no reason
why people should be afraid of science. Science is what makes our
world go round. Not only is science an integral part of our modern world,
but it is the very foundation of any effective method for building muscle.
So, we created the HS:Report to increase our readers awareness
of the science behind modern training, diet, and supplementation.
In 1978 I began lifting weights and drinking protein
drinks. Decades ago, gyms were anything but high-tech. I remember one
of the first gyms I trained at was in the back of an old laundromat.
Most of the equipment was homemade (not to be confused with "custom
made") and rickety. Anything made of iron had a good layer of rust.
It was dark, it was musty, and it smelled like old gym clothes that
for some reason still unbeknownst to me were never actually washed.
Man I used to bust my butt in that gym, dreaming
of the day when I would look like Arnold and Lou. After my workouts
I'd go home, pop in a rented copy of Pumping Iron (you couldn't
actually buy it yet) in the machine and throw back a horrendous tasting
protein drink made by the Master Blaster himself. As I'd watch Arnold
and Ed grimacing under the squat bar, I'd take a swig of the Blaster's
brew and you would've sworn by the grimace on my own face that I had
just finished a "squat till you puke" set of squats right
along with them. But you know what they used to say, no pain no gain.
I just figured gagging down nasty protein drinks was just part of the
Well, times have changed. I no longer workout in
the back of an old laundromat, and I no longer gag down awful tasting
protein drinks, but I've never lost my passion for bodybuilding and
supplements. On the contrary, it has become my life's quest to find
out all that can be known about building muscle. Along the way I've
spent countless hours in the gym, a small fortune on supplements, and
10 years in college just to make sure I didn't overlook any of the finer
What was the result of this life spent on bodybuilding?
Well, I've had the good fortune of training some really great competitors,
writing for a few of the best bodybuilding magazines ever, consulting
for some really great companies, and the high point of it all...was
the chance to publish HST to the world and create the best supplements
When I published HST, I never imagined the effect
it would have. Don't get me wrong, I knew without any doubt it was the
most effective way to build size quickly, I just didn't think people
would listen. To my pleasant surprise, it has sent out a wave of change
that has covered the globe and produced literally thousands of pounds
of muscle. And the supplements, well, they are something I am very proud
My goal with HST and the HS:APS has
always been muscle hypertrophy, period. The Advanced Protein System
(APS) was designed according to the absolute latest research on the
anabolic effects of protein and training. Although research has led
to some controversy as to exactly how much protein an athlete needs
on a daily basis, there is no question about the need for protein immediately
before and after your workouts.(1-5) So I gathered the highest quality
proteins available and I designed a protein system that would lead to
the greatest uptake of amino acids each and every workout, thus producing
the fastest muscle growth possible without a prescription.
The results had by users of HST and the HS:APS
have proven their effectiveness.
Here is a sample:
"Ok, today I finished my second cycle
fifth week (5's). My results seem too good to be true. Get ready
for this: So in two cycles with a length of two and a half
months I gained 7.5 kilos (16.5 pounds), and my waist went increased
only 1.5cm! Bryan if you want to use my post as proof that
HST works please do!"
"Just did my measurements following
the 15s of my full body cycle of HST. Man, it is going insane,
sure I know that some of the gains will be local swelling from
the constant training, but I doubt that it totals all of it.
Bodyweight 93.6 to 95.5kg
LBM 77.6 to 79.1kg
Loads are feeling good, only just reached
failure in one exercise (bench) and am getting psyched to get
my lbm over 80kg, possibly even to the great 181lb mark (82.5kg)
and all this with a constant cold that my kids gave me. Excellent
"Hi Bryan, I have just finished my
first HST cycle and am very pleased with the results, to say the
least. I have gained 8.8 pounds, put on 1" on my arms, 1.6"
on my thighs and 0.8" on my calves (even though I didn't train
them directly). My strength has gone up noticeably as well. I
can now power clean the weights that I used to deadlift!"
As always, Hypertrophy-Specific Training is
FREE to everybody. Add Primer and Driver to your program and you
can't make faster gains without a syringe! I'm not kidding. The
science has finally reached a point where real muscle gains in only
a matter of weeks are possible. HSN and HST are the embodiment
of that science.
Come to www.Hypertrophy-Specific.com
and set up your HST program and get yourself the Primer and Driver Advanced
Protein System. I guarantee you will see improvements that will change
the way you train and the supplements you use forever.
Research behind HSN Primer
1: Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall
SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RR. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion
alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol
Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;281(2):E197-206.
2: Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Wolfe
RR. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle
protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):386-92.
3: Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D Jr,
Wolfe RR. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally
administered amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 1):E628-34.
4: Biolo G, Maggi SP, Williams BD, Tipton KD, Wolfe
RR. Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport
after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1995 Mar;268(3 Pt
5: Biolo G, Williams BD, Fleming RY, Wolfe RR. Insulin
action on muscle protein kinetics and amino acid transport during recovery
after resistance exercise. Diabetes. 1999 May;48(5):949-57.
6: Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolfe RR. An abundant
supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle
protein. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 1):E122-9.
offering the HS:StreetTeam the APS set for $50.00!
That's $35 SAVINGS! We want to give back to everybody who has taken active
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possibly can. Primer & Driver are pure and extremely effective
proteins, and they taste phenomenal!
make your purchase through the HS:Store, put your HS:StreetTeam
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HS:APS set up today for $50.00! And begin telling your friends
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